The Glossary provides definitions of words and is intended to clarify terms and usage with regard to specific application within AWI’s standards. This glossary is intended to cover Architectural Woodwork Standards and AWI Education publications.
The ability of a material to resist surface wear due to friction.
Abbreviation for the plastic polymer, “acrylonitrile butadiene styrene,” a synthetic polymer used in decorative coatings and edgebanding.
A type of transparent finishing system containing acrylic resins.
The resistance to separation of material joined together with adhesives. In finishing, the resistance to separation of finish material from the underlying layers and/or substrate.
A general term for substances capable of bonding materials together by surface attachment and/or chemical reaction. Common types include glue, contact cement, epoxy, and caulk.
ADHESIVE, COLD PRESS AND HOT PRESS
“Cold press” means no heat is applied to the press and may include the use of pinch rollers. “Hot press” means heat is applied at the time the press is in operation to speed the cure of, and/or to activate the adhesive.
ADHESIVE, TYPE I FULLY WATERPROOF
Forms a bond that will retain its strength when subjected to a thorough wetting and drying; bond shall be of such quality that specimens will withstand the dry and cyclic-boil shear test as specified in ANSI/HPVA HP-1 (latest edition). Typically used in non-climate-controlled interior or exterior applications.
ADHESIVE, TYPE II WATER RESISTANT
Forms a bond that will retain its strength when occasionally subjected to a thorough wetting and drying; bond shall be of such quality that specimens will withstand the three-cycle soak and dry test as specified in ANSI/HPVA HP-1 (latest edition). Typically used in climate-controlled interior applications.
A term used to describe two surfaces which are directly next to or touching each other.
A panel surface that is within 152.4mm [6”] of another panel surface on the same plane within a room.
Shelves whose location can be adjusted through the use of pins (or brackets) set into line-bored holes or metal clips on a ladder-type shelf standard.
In relation to these standards, refers to the appearance and feel of those surfaces that will be exposed or semi-exposed following installation.
Core products made from the residual material from a grain crop similar in composition to particleboard.
Material that has been dried by controlled exposure to the atmosphere, in the open or under cover, without artificial heat.
Strips of material applied to the back of cabinets through which anchorage fasteners are inserted to mount the cabinet to the wall. Other terms include nailers and hanging strips.
Installation screws used to attach casework or blocking to walls.
A synthetic dye used to add color to wood prior to topcoating. Dyes are particularly useful to enhance the color of the wood while maintaining or improving the clarity of figure and grain.
For purposes of these standards, means a horizontal trim member that extends vertically below a horizontal surface such as a countertop or table typically at knee spaces or open sink areas.
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN DRAWINGS
Custom wood products including interior woodwork attached to a building (except specialty items such as flooring, shingles, exposed roof decking, ceiling, siding, structural wood trusses and rafters, and overhead type doors). May be composed of wood, laminate, or solid surface materials.
In architecture, a sharp edge formed by the meeting of two surfaces.
In architectural paneling, joint details that allow for field variations and movement due to expansion and contraction.
A decorative laminate countertop construction method in which the back and end splash are separate from the top and are mounted to the wall and the countertop deck during installation.
A decorative laminate countertop construction method in which the back and end splash are mounted to the deck prior to delivery.
A process that utilizes heat or UV light to remove the majority of solvent from a substance, thereby allowing finish coats to be applied in stages. In between applications, coating and curing can be held for a period of time without sacrificing performance.
1) The side which is opposite the face of a panel. 2) The poorer side of a panel calling for a face and a back. 3) The rear component of a cabinet opposite the doors, drawers, or open interior.
The application of finish material to concealed surfaces of architectural woodwork in order to minimize moisture transfer between the coated material and building surfaces and/or interior air.
1) The veneer placed on the semi-exposed or concealed face of a veneered panel construction to balance the construction. 2) The veneer placed on the side opposite the face of a panel or the poorer side of panel calling for a face and a back.
A sheet product, applied to the backs of panels, countertops and splashes, with performance properties determined by its material composition. Because material composition types vary, backer sheet types vary in performance properties. The type of backer sheet material used should be based on overall product demands. When used as a balancing sheet, a backer must have performance properties equal to an opposing surface with a similar adhesive and application process as the face sheet (See BALANCING SHEET). Otherwise, a backer sheet need not have performance properties equal to an opposing surface.
A term used to describe a panel made up of an odd number of plies laminated together so that the materials are identical on both sides of a plane through the center of the panel. To achieve balanced construction, materials should be used on either side that contract or expand, or are moisture permeable, at the same rate. Balanced construction requirements for decorative laminate fabrication vary with the product. Doors and drawer fronts should have a balancing sheet on the back side and be applied in the same machine direction. Countertops or cabinet members, on the other hand, only require some form of backer material.
A sheet product with performance properties equal to an opposing surface. A balancing sheet is laminated to the secondary surface of a core with the same adhesive and application process as the primary surface material (i.e., face material) to maintain the panel’s flatness. Typically, a balance sheet is used to balance a panel that will not be captured or restrained (i.e., doors).
A species of similar density and dimensional stability used to achieve balance by equalizing the rate of moisture absorption or emission.
A vertical member below a handrail or guardrail used to provide support and function as a decorative barrier.
The assembly of newels, balusters, and rails that make up a functional barrier which is both safe and decorative along balconies and open sides of stairways and ramps.
Usually refers to the application of a material to the edge of a panel to cover or hide the otherwise exposed core.
An optical effect that often occurs when veneers are book matched, resulting in an alternating dark and light appearance. This is caused by slicing veneer, creating tight and loose sides that are placed adjacent to one another in the book matching process. The tight and loose sides reflect light differently, resulting in the varying appearance.
Tree bark around which wood has grown.
BEDDING IN PUTTY
Glass which is set into a layer of glazing compound to hold it in place in a sash or frame.
A machined angle other than a right angle or, in flooring or wall paneling, a V-shaped groove between strips, planks, or panels.
The edge of a door that forms an angle of less than 90 degrees to the face, such as a three degree beveled edge to allow clearance for the door as it swings into the door frame when closed.
Decorative figure in veneer and solid wood that resembles swirling eyes or a series of small circles. This effect is due to small, conical depressions in the outer annual rings which appear to follow the same contour in subsequent growth rings, probably for many years.
The chemical process used to remove color or whiten solid wood or wood veneered panels. This process may be used to lighten an extremely dark wood or to whiten a lighter colored wood. Most woods do not turn completely white when bleached.
An effect that occurs when the color of one finish coating material migrates up through the finishing layer to the succeeding coat, imparting some of its characteristics along the way.
Color change that is detectable at a distance of 1829mm [6’] to 2438mm [8’] but does not detract from the overall appearance of a panel or door.
The abutting of two cabinets, typically with filler strips, at an approximate 90 degree angle, resulting in an empty space in the back corner.
1) Formation of bubbles on the surface of a coating, caused by trapping air or vapors beneath the surface. 2) An area where veneer does not adhere to the core material. 3) A wood figure resembling an uneven collection of rounded or blister-like bulges caused by the uneven contour of annual growth rings.
BLUEPRINT SEQUENCED PANELS AND COMPONENTS
A manufacturing method in which each panel of the walls and components (i.e., desk, doors) is custom-manufactured to the specific size required. All panels are balance matched and sequenced to the adjacent panels.
The whitish, cloud like haze that occurs in fast drying finishes, especially lacquer, when they are sprayed in very humid conditions. This effect is, most often, due to moisture or water vapor trapped in the film or resin precipitating out of solution.
An individual piece of lumber prior to gluing for width or thickness.
A unit of measurement of lumber equivalent to a board 25.4mm [1”] thick by 305mm [12”] wide by 305mm [12”] long. Abbreviated BF, Bf, or bf. When stock is less than 25.4mm [1”] thick, it is usually calculated as if it were a full 25.4mm [1”] thick.
A veneer lay-up term to describe the matching between adjacent veneer leaves on one panel face. Every other piece of veneer is turned over so that the adjacent leaves are “opened” like two pages in a book. Due to the effect on the wood fibers as a result of the slicing process, the adjacent leaves may reflect light differently, resulting in a light and dark contrast known as Barber Pole.
A deviation, flatwise, from a straight line drawn from end to end of a piece. It is measured at the point of greatest distance from the straight line.
A condition of wood characterized by low resistance to shock and by abrupt failure across the grain without splintering.
In-wall blocking used for the installation of door/window jambs and other woodwork in conjunction with metal framing and/or block walls.
BUGLE HEAD SCREW
Similar to countersunk screw; however, there is a smooth curved, progression from the shank to the angle of the head, similar to the bell of a bugle; such as drywall screws.
A convex, rounded shape typically applied to edges of countertops, stair steps, and trim moulding.
Figure in wood created by abnormal growth or response to injury that forms an irregular mass of dense woody tissue on the trunk or branch of the tree. Burls are characterized by eye-like markings surrounded by swirls and clusters of distorted tissues. The measurement of the burl is the average of the maximum and minimum dimensions of the burl.
A swirl, twist, or distortion in the grain of the wood which usually occurs near a knot or crotch but does not contain a knot and does not contain abrupt color variation. A blending burl is detectable at 1829mm [6’] to 2438mm [8’] as a swirl or roundel.
A swirl, twist, or distortion in the grain of the wood which usually occurs near a knot or crotch. A conspicuous burl is associated with abrupt color variation and/or a cluster of small dark piths caused by a cluster of adventitious buds.
Generally refers to face-glued hardwoods (usually maple) forming a work surface in which the edge grain is exposed to wear.
A joint formed by square-edged surfaces (ends, edges, faces) coming together; end butt joint, edge butt joint.
The outermost surface of a cabinet unit that allows access to the interior of the cabinet unit, including door faces, drawer faces, or false front faces. Does not include ends, sides, top, bottom or back. If the cabinet is an open cabinet, the cabinet face is the outermost front, exposed edges of the cabinet box.
As used within these Standards, a common name for High Pressure Decorative Laminate (HPDL) not to exceed a thickness of .5mm [.020”] thickness.
A single, manufactured case typically consisting of two ends, a top, a bottom, and may include back, stretchers, anchor strips, shelves, doors, drawer fronts, drawers, dividers, and hardware.
A projecting structure that is attached or supported at only one end, such as an extended countertop.
A triangular-shaped or beveled strip of material used to ease the transition from a horizontal plane to a vertical plane.
A term used to describe a component whose perimeter is mechanically fastened or joined to other components so that it’s not allowed to warp independently of those attached components.
Base, tall, and wall cabinets, display fixtures, and storage shelving units. The generic term for both “boxes” and special desks, reception counters, nurse’s stations, etc. Generally includes countertops and work surfaces.
CASEWORK HANGING SYSTEM
A cabinet mounting system, typically composed of two features: a metal profiled rail which is attached to the wall and a set of mechanical devices attached to the cabinet body designed to engage the rail and allow for adjustment and securing the cabinet to the wall.
In finishing, used to describe a finish material into which a chemical additive has been mixed; formulated to induce a chemical reaction which cures the finish and may enhance the performance characteristics.
A grain appearance characterized by a series of stacked and inverted “V” or cathedral-type patterns common in plain sliced (flat cut) veneer. Cathedral grain is most noticeable in species which exhibit a high amount of contrast between springwood and summerwood.
1) A sealant used to fill or make a watertight or airtight seal between two adjacent surfaces. 2) The action of making a seal with a sealant.
Used to describe a form of veneer matching that uses two or more even-numbered leaves of equal width, matched with a joint occurring in the center of the panel, producing horizontal symmetry. A small amount of the figure is lost.
CHAIN OF CUSTODY
A method of tracking the handling of a wood product from the forest to delivery of the finished product. Each step of transportation and manufacturing is documented for verification of the handling process.
An angled surface which runs from the face to the edge of the material.
As an element of nature, a distinctive feature in a wood surface produced by minerals and other elements that are absorbed as a tree grows.
Lines appearing across the surface of a panel or board, giving the appearance of one or more corrugations resulting from improper setup of planer or sander settings.
Cracks that appear in a finishing film due to lack of cohesion, often caused by too heavy of a coat being applied or a poor grade of finish being used. Also known as cold checking.
Small slits running parallel to the grain of wood, caused chiefly by improper seasoning and drying.
Shallow depressions or indentations on or in the surface of dressed lumber caused by shavings or chips getting embedded in the surface during dressing.
Atmospheric conditions found inside or outside a building, including temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure.
Referring to the inside areas of a building where heat or air conditioning systems are installed and actively used for environmental controls.
In stairwork, a stringer that boxes in the treads and risers.
A recessed, decorative panel set between exposed ceiling beams.
Used to describe a filler material and/or caulk which is of similar color, hue, and tone to the adjacent members. Though color compatible does not imply an exact match, the differentiations between color compatible materials are inconspicuous (as defined in this glossary).
A rift cut veneer with exceptionally straight grain and closely-spaced growth increments resembling the appearance of long strands of combed hair.
COMMON MARKET NAME
The non-scientific name used for wood that comes from a particular tree. More than one name may be used to sell the same type of wood. Example: Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) may be sold as sugar maple, hard maple, rock maple, rock hard maple, hard rock maple, white maple, sweet maple, sugar tree maple, or butcher block maple.
Panels are a hybridization of veneer and composition cores, offering the advantages of both. Typically, these cores have internal layers which are constructed of three or five plies of veneer or a center layer of wafer board (randomly oriented wafers) which are sandwiched between thin laminations of a composite product like MDF, particleboard, hardboard, etc.
COMPATIBLE FOR COLOR AND GRAIN
For purposes of these standards, means members shall be selected so that:
• Lighter-than-average color members will not be adjacent to darker-than-average color members and there will be no sharp contrast in color between the adjacent members, and
• The grain of adjacent members shall not vary widely or be dissimilar in grain, character, and figure.
For purposes of these standards, means different species which are able to exist in a harmonious combination of color and grain.
Surfaces that are neither visible nor accessible to the building occupants and/or general public under normal circumstances.
Detectable; readily visible with the naked eye when observed under normal lighting conditions. May have further restrictions involving distance related to aesthetic grade levels defined in these standards.
A bonding agent that is applied to two surfaces and allowed to dry before being pressed together.
The contract documents consist of the conditions of the contract (general, supplementary, and other conditions), drawings, specifications, addenda, other documents issued after execution of the agreement, all of which form the contract, and are fully a part of the contract. The contract represents the entire and integrated agreement between the parties hereto and supersedes prior negotiations, representations or agreements, either written or oral.
In finishing, a two-part transparent wood finishing system incorporating a chemical catalyst to induce curing and provide increased durability.
On profiled moulding, to cut the end of one member to match the profile of another molded member; often used to form interior corner joints in mouldings.
The process of cutting short lengths of straight material and joining them to form a curve.
The panel material on which an exposed surface material (typically, veneer or decorative laminate) is applied. Examples: particleboard, MDF, veneer, lumber, or a combination of these.
A core assembly generally used in doors, consisting of a frame assembly with open areas typically filled with an expandable cardboard/paper honeycomb material.
A fire-resistant core material generally used in doors requiring fire rating.
The innermost layer or section in flush door construction. Typical materials are as follows:
PARTICLEBOARD: A solid core of wood or other lignocellulose particles bonded together with a suitable binder, cured under heat, and pressed into a rigid panel in a flat platen press.
STAVE: A solid core of wood blocks or strips.
WOOD BLOCK, LINED: A solid core of two parts; a central wood block core bonded to two core liners of wood or other lignocellulose materials.
A finish defect appearing as small depressions or “fish eye”. Often caused by contamination of the finish material or substrate with silicone, oil, or other substances.
A deviation, edgewise, from a straight line drawn from end to end of a piece. It is measured at the point of greatest distance from the straight line.
A ply placed between the core and face veneer in 5-ply or more, construction. When the crossbanding has directional grain, it is placed at right angles to the grain of the face veneer. When used with laminate face doors, crossbanding may consist of more than one ply.
Irregularity of grain resembling a dip in the grain running at right angles, or nearly so, to the length of the veneer.
Grain direction irregularity due to interlocked fibers, uneven annual rings, or to the intersection of a branch and stem forcing the visual line of the grain to run at an angle to the length of the wood.
Veneer which is sliced from the portion of a tree just below the point where it forks into two limbs. The grain is commonly crushed and twisted, creating a variety of plume and flame figures, often resembling a well-formed feather. The outside of the block produces a swirl figure that changes to full crotch figure as the cutting approaches the center of the block.
A deviation in the face of a piece from a straight line drawn from end to end of a piece. It is measured at the point of greatest distance from the straight line.
A dado groove that is not visible when the joint is cross-grain.
A rectangular groove across the grain of a wood member into which the end of the joining member is inserted; also, a housed joint. Variations include “mortise and tenon” and “stopped or blind dado” joints.
DECORATIVE COMPOSITE PANELS
In architectural woodwork and casework, a thermally fused panel flat-pressed from a thermoset polyester or melamine resin impregnated paper (minimum 30%); See LOW PRESSURE DECORATIVE LAMINATES (LPDL).
A fault that detracts from the quality, appearance, or utility of a piece. Handling marks and/or grain raising due to moisture shall not be considered a defect.
The permanent conversion of forest land to some other non-timber use.
Separation of plies or layers of wood or other materials through failure of the adhesive joint.
An architect, interior designer, or other individual qualified by education, state licensure, or certification to provide services for the design of buildings, interiors, and furnishings.
A woodwork assembly, typically vertical, consisting of sub framing as the support for countertops and finished faces as well as a chaseway for wiring. Often self-supporting or free standing. Example: reception desks, nurse stations and low walls.
Material that is pre-cut in width and thickness to a standard size.
Stains in wood materials; i.e. sap stains, blue stains, or stains produced by:
1. Chemical action caused by iron tools coming into contact with the wood’s tannic acid.
2. Adhesive components, and/or the surface finish.
3. Exposure of natural wood extractives to oxygen and light.
4. Chemical action of vat treatments or ingredients of the adhesive or core material.
In finishing, either a mechanical or chemical special effect meant to give the appearance of wear from use over time.
A cabinet component that is not one of the two sides, top, or bottom. A division divides a cabinet into sections. Divisions may be horizontal or vertical.
The party responsible for the take off, ordering, and supplying of hinged, sliding, or revolving barriers at the entrance to a building or a room.
A joinery technique consisting of one or more tenons cut to extend from the end of one board and interlock with a corresponding series of mortises cut into the end of another board. When glued, a wooden dovetail joint requires no mechanical fasteners.
A cylindrical wooden or metal peg used to join two members when inserted into an abutting piece to prevent motion or slipping.
A joinery technique using “dowels” (doweled construction); also “doweled edge joint.”
A form of wood decay characterized by a dull and lifeless appearance of the wood, accompanied by a loss of strength and softening of the wood.
The result of a process in which sharp edges are traditionally “eased” by lightly striking the edge with a fine abrasive. May also be machined to a small radius when permitted by specification.
One of three aesthetic grades in regard to material and workmanship. Appropriate for work where price is a major factor and relaxing of tolerances is acceptable. Typical areas for use include back rooms as well as utility and storage areas.
The material applied to the edge of panels or countertops to cover the exposed core. Typically machine applied. Final appearance is subject to tolerances found in these Standards.
Boards glued together at the edges to increase width.
The final result achieved in a finished wood surface, after the application of a clearly specified series of finishing procedures (steps) have been completed. Successfully achieving a specified “effect” requires the active participation of the design professional and the woodwork finisher.
As used within these standards, refers to a view of the front, back or end of an assembly or grouping of architectural woodwork components as viewed when standing and looking at the component(s).
END BUTT JOINT
A union formed when:
• The end of one board is glued to an edge or face of another board to form an angle (i.e., stiles and rails of a face frame)
• The square-cut end of one board is fastened to the square-cut end of another to increase its length (i.e., running trim)
Butting adjacent veneer leaves on one panel end to end in sequence. Veneer leaves are book matched end to end. Generally used for very long panels or for projects in which only short-length veneers are available.
EQUILIBRIUM MOISTURE CONTENT
The moisture content at which wood neither gains nor loses moisture when surrounded by air at a given relative humidity and temperature.
EXPOSED EXTERIOR SURFACES
For purposes of these standards, specifically casework, means all exterior surfaces exposed to view.
Any mechanical fastening device, filled or unfilled, visible on exposed or semi-exposed surfaces of woodwork.
EXPOSED INTERIOR SURFACES
For purposes of these standards, specifically casework, means all interior surfaces exposed to view in open casework or behind transparent doors
Surfaces up to 2032mm [80”] above finished floor and generally visible and open to the building occupants and/or general public.
The portion of the structure that is outside of the weather proofing of the building, including the weather proofing (non-climate controlled).
The better side of any panel in which the outer plies are of different veneer grades. Also, either side of a panel in which there is no difference in veneer grade of the outer plies.
FACE FRAME CONSTRUCTION
Cabinet construction type in which the front edge of the cabinet body components are overlaid with a frame from which doors are often hung.
The outermost exposed wood veneer surface of a veneered door, panel, or other component exposed to view when the project is completed.
The generic term for securing devices that are used in the fabrication and/or installation of architectural woodwork, such as dowels, dowel screws, splines, nails, screws, bolts, and shot pins.
A small number (generally less than five).
Fine fibers of wood mixed with binders and formed into panels with heat and pressure.
A fine, strong, even ripple figure occurring at a right angle to straight grain. Frequently seen on the backs of violins. Commonly found in mahogany, maple, and occasionally in other species.
Referring to the building construction location or jobsite.
The natural pattern produced in the wood surface by annual growth rings, rays, knots, and natural deviations from the normal grain such as interlocked and wavy grain, and irregular coloration.
1) An optional finishing step using material to fill pores in grain or small cavities in wood prior to coloring or topcoating. 2) An additional piece of trim material between woodwork members or between woodwork and some other material, typically walls. Used to transition between the members such as in casework, paneling, ornamental work, stairwork, etc.
A series of precise, interlocking fingers cut on the ends of two matching pieces of wood that mesh together and are held rigidly in place with adhesive to increase the length of the board or moulding.
FIRE RETARDANT TREATMENT
The impregnation of the wood, under pressure, with salts and other chemicals to reduce flammability and retard the spread of flame over the surface. Note: Only a few species are treated. Due to its closed cell structure, white oak is untreatable.
FIRE RATED DOOR
Doors complying with NFPA 80 that are listed and labeled by a qualified testing agency for fire-protection ratings. Ratings are indicated, based on testing at positive pressure according to NFPA 252 or UL 10C. Doors can be rated as resisting fire for 20 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes, 60 minutes, or 90 minutes. The door must be tested and carry an identifying label from a qualified testing and inspection agency.
Fire retardant designations indicated by a testing facility’s certified stamp. It is the responsibility of the specifier to indicate which fire-retardant classification is required for a particular product. In the absence of such a specified rating, the manufacturer may supply unrated product.
FLAME SPREAD CLASSIFICATION
The generally-accepted measurement for flame spread rating of materials. It compares the rate of flame spread on a particular species with the rate of flame spread on untreated Red Oak.
A description of a surface in one plane without depressions or projections.
The portion of a ray as it appears on a quarter-sawn or rift-cut surface. Fleck is often a dominant appearance feature in quarter-sliced oak veneer or quartered oak lumber.
1) A half log evaluated and prepared for veneer production or 2) the veneer slices of one log, kept in order, tallied, bundled and ready for sale for door or panel production.
Cabinet construction in which the door and drawer faces are set within and flush with the body members or face frames of the cabinet with spaces between face surfaces sufficient for operating clearance.
Cabinet construction in which door and drawer faces cover the body members of the cabinet with minimal spaces between face surfaces within the tolerances outlined in the standards.
One of a series of parallel, lengthwise channels or grooves in a column, cornice moulding, band, or furniture leg.
Cabinet construction type without a face frame. Characterized by components of the cabinet box that are usually edgebanded.
A method of concealed panel or casework installation, consisting of two pieces of solid lumber or panel product, each having one edge machined at an angle. One piece is attached to the wall while the other is attached to the back of the casework product such that the pieces will lock together when the casework is hung.
Material added to a building surface to create a true plane in order to install woodwork plumb and level.
Aside from the traditional usage referring to the end of a building, in casework the end or side of a cabinet.
An unfilled opening in a continuous surface or between adjoining surfaces.
A general contractor, responsible for executing the contract for a building project and coordinating the work between the subcontractors as well as the chain of communications between the owner, design professionals, and subcontractors.
1) In finishing, an added step for achieving color or to heighten grain appearance. 2) Inserting glass panes into a frame.
Most hardwoods are graded utilizing the rules established by the National Hardwood Lumber Association. Softwoods, on the other hand, are graded by several grading associations. The three primary softwood grading associations are Western Wood Products Association (WWPA), Southern Pine Inspection Bureau (SPIB), and Redwood Inspection Service (RIS).
• Although lumber must be purchased by the manufacturer according to these grading rules, these rules should not be used to specify lumber for architectural woodwork. Specify the grade of work for the fabricated products under these standards.
• Softwood plywood is graded by the American Plywood Association (APA, The Engineered Wood Association). Grade markings are stamped on the back or edge of each sheet.
• Hardwood plywood is made under the standards of the Hardwood Plywood and Veneer Association (HPVA). These grades are rarely marked on the panels.
1) The arrangement of the fibers in wood with respect to their direction, size, arrangement, appearance, or quality, which varies by species and growing conditions. 2) Refers to the visual appearance of lumber and veneer. When severed by sawblade or veneer knife, the annual growth rings become pronounced and are defined and referred to as “grain,” including the following types:
FLAT GRAIN (FG) or SLASH GRAIN (SG): A woodgrain pattern resulting when lumber or veneer is sawn or sliced approximately parallel to the annual growth rings so that the majority of the rings form an angle of less than 45° to the surface of the piece.
MIXED GRAIN (MG): Any combination of vertical or flat grain in the same member. Vertical grain lumber or veneer is sawn or sliced at approximately right angles to the annual growth rings so that the rings form an angle of 45° or more with the surface of the piece.
QUARTERED GRAIN: A woodgrain pattern produced by quarter-sawing or slicing that results in straight grain and tends to bring out certain figure produced by the medullary or pith rays, especially conspicuous in oak.
RIFT GRAIN: A straight grain appearance achieved through the process of cutting at a slight angle to the radial on the half round stay log or through the use of veneer cut in any fashion that produces a straight grain with minimal ray fleck.
CLOSED GRAIN AND OPEN GRAIN: The appearance and uniformity of the wood grain as influenced by the size and distribution of the cellular structure of a given species. “Ring porous” species refers to distinct definitions of annual rings such as elm, oak and ash, and often referred to as “open grain”. Diffuse porous species such as cherry, maple, and birch are often referred to as “closed grain”.
A varying pattern produced by cutting through growth rings, exposing various layers. It is most pronounced in veneer cut tangentially or rotary.
An expression of the angle of the grain to the long edges of the veneer component.
An expression of the angle of the grain to the long edges of the veneer component over the area extending more than one-eighth of the length over its width.
A rectangular slot cut parallel with the grain of the wood.
A narrow strip of wood that serves as a guide for plaster as well as a base to which trim members are secured. Grounds are applied to rough interior openings, especially doors and windows, along interior walls at the finish floor line and wherever wainscot may be installed. The thickness of a ground is that of the combined lath and plaster while the width varies from 25.4mm [1”] to 76.2mm [3”], which is often called plaster grounds (around interior or exterior openings) and base grounds (when used around base of rooms).
The layer of wood added by a tree in a single growing season, the markings of which contribute to the figure in finished woods. Annual growth rings include both spring and summer growth, also known as earlywood and latewood.
Well-defined openings between rings of annual growth containing gum or evidence of prior gum accumulations.
A thin, perceptible line showing at the joint of two pieces of wood or veneer. May also refer to a crack in the surface of the material.
HALF LAP JOINT
A joint formed by extending (lapping) the joining part of one member over the joining part of another. Both members are machined at the joint, removing half the thickness of each member so that when joined all surfaces are flush.
HALF ROUND SLICING
Veneer slicing method similar to rotary slicing, in which the piece being sliced is secured to a “stay log” device that permits the cutting of the log on a wider sweep than when mounted with its center secured in the lathe to produce rotary sliced veneer. Plain-sliced or flat-sliced veneer can be produced this way.
Scratches, dents, blemishes, mars, hand or fingerprints and scuffs left or created by physical handling or packaging.
A final finishing step performed manually to smooth, flatten, or dull the topcoat.
A generic term for a panel manufactured primarily from inter felted lignocellulose fibers consolidated under heat and pressure in a hot press and conforming to the requirements of ANSI/AHA A 135.4 (latest edition).
Hardboard that has been coated or impregnated with an oil and then baked to give it more impact resistance, hardness, rigidity, tensile strength, and more resistance to scratches and moisture. Tempered hardboard is typically smooth on both sides and is darker than non-tempered hardboard.
1) The property of a cured finish material that describes its dent resistance or penetration by a hard object. 2) The tested ranking of a hardwood’s bending strength, crushing strength, modulus of rupture, or modulus of elasticity. Typically referred to as “toughness.”
General term used to designate lumber or veneer produced from temperate zone deciduous or tropical broad-leaved trees in contrast to softwood, which is produced from trees that are usually needle bearing or coniferous. The term does not imply hardness in its physical sense.
The non-active or dormant center of a tree, generally distinguishable from the outer portion (sapwood) by its darker color, sometimes referred to as heart. “All heart” designates wood materials that are sorted for no light-colored sapwood.
HIGH DENSITY OVERLAY
A panel product made using phenolic resin-impregnated paper applied under heat and pressure to exterior grade plywood. Typically used for exterior surfaces.
Laminated thermoset decorative sheets, intended for decorative purposes, that consist of phenolic resin-impregnated sheets of fibrous material or paper and a melamine resin-impregnated decorative top layer in various colors and textures. The sheets are bonded under the combined effect of high heat and pressure, thus producing a highly durable product. The exposed surface offers durability and resistance to damage from abrasion and mild alkalies, acids, and solvents, meeting the requirements of the ISO 4586 Standard (latest edition).
Hardwood Plywood and Veneer Association
An opening in the material. Applies to holes from any cause.
Holes resulting from infestation by worms greater than 1.6mm [.063”] in diameter.
HONEYCOMB DOOR CORE
An internal material for door cores made of lightweight paper, wood, or aluminum that has been perforated and stretched to achieve a uniform thickness with airspaces while supporting the surface veneer layers of the door faces and is a base for attachment of back bands or cross bands.
Checks, often not visible at the surface, that occur in the interior of a piece of wood, usually along the wood rays.
HOUSED CABINET BACK
The back panel of the cabinet back set into a groove and captured on three edges.
Low or compressed areas of a material resulting from 1) Mishandling or damage during manufacturing or 2) Residue on the platens of a hot press.
Plies other than face or back plies in a panel construction. Crossbands and centers are classed as inner plies (See also CORE).
A person or organization that regularly engages in the practice of installing architectural woodwork.
The portion of a building that is inside the building weather proofing, not including the weather proofing (can be climate controlled).
Wooden or metal support material placed within drywall or plaster walls to support casework installations.
Liquid applied to the surface of flammable products to reduce flammability.
The line of juncture between the edges or ends of two adjacent pieces of lumber or sheets of veneer, such as butt, dado (blind, stopped), dovetail, blind dovetail, finger, half lap, lock, miter (shoulder, lock, spline), mortise and tenon (blind slotted, stub, or through), rabbet, scarf, spline, and tongue and groove joint.
A space or joint between two members of a fabrication, installation, or product that permits movement between two members due to shrinking and swelling without incurring structural damage.
A joint in which two adjacent pieces of lumber or veneer do not fit tightly together.
Any joints or a combination of joints and/or mechanical fasteners, that are used to join two woodwork parts in the plant. Gap tolerances are defined in these standards.
Any joints or a combination of joints and/or mechanical fasteners that are used to join two members in the field. Gap tolerances are defined in these standards.
The groove or notch made as a saw passes through wood and/or the wood removed by the saw in parting the material.
Lumber dried in a closed chamber in which the removal of moisture is controlled by heat and relative humidity.
Acronym for “knife marks per inch”; defined as the number of cutter marks left in one inch of length on the surface of the wood being machined. In general, the higher the number of KMPI the smoother the finish.
The imprints or markings of the machine knives on the surface of dressed lumber.
KNOCKED DOWN (KD)
Unassembled, as contrasted to assembled.
Cross section of tree branch or limb with grain usually running at right angles to that of the piece of wood in which it occurs, typically darker in color than the surrounding surface.
CONSPICUOUS PIN: Sound knots 6.4mm [1/4”] or less in diameter containing dark centers.
KNOT HOLES: Openings through the total thickness of the wood produced when knots drop out from where they were embedded.
OPEN KNOT: Opening produced where a cross check has occurred or a portion of the wood substance of a knot has dropped out.
SOUND TIGHT: Knots that are solid across their face and fixed by growth to retain their place.
SPIKE: Knots cut from 0° to 45° to the long axis of limbs.
A finish coating composed of materials such as nitrocellulose, ethylcellulose, or natural and synthetic resins, which are dissolved in organic solvents and are dried by solvent evaporation.
The individual pieces of wood veneer that make up a flitch.
Acronym for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. An environmental building rating system created by United States Green Building Council (USGBC) to encourage and certify the environmental and energy-saving attributes of a building and its operations.
A finishing defect in which the first coat raises and wrinkles due to a softening of the dried film by solvents of the succeeding coat.
In door construction, openings which receive glazing.
Variation in the height of adjoining stone or epoxy resin counter top joints. The differences in elevation between edges of adjacent tile modules.
A tabular method of describing materials or methods that do not require drawings.
In a door, a concealed block the same thickness as the door stile or core that is adjacent to the stile at a location corresponding to the lock location and into which a lock is fitted.
Interlocking joint between two members.
LOOSE SIDE (OF LEAF)
In knife cut veneer, the side of the leaf that was in contact with the knife as the veneer was being cut and which contains cutting checks (lathe checks) because of the bending of the wood at the knife edge.
A slat or slats installed in a panel or door at an angle to the panel, allowing various degrees of light, air, or sound passage. May be constructed as adjustable.
A generic term for a panel manufactured by breaking down hardwood or softwood residuals into wood fibers, often in a defibrator, combining it with wax and a resin binder, and forming panels by applying high temperature and pressure. MDF is generally denser than plywood and particleboard.
MEDIUM DENSITY OVERLAY (MDO)
A panel product particularly well suited for opaque (paint) finishes; most versions are highly weather resistant.
A ray that extends radially from the center of a log toward the outer circumference. These rays serve primarily to store food and transport it horizontally. These rays can vary in height from a few cells in some species to in excess of 101.6mm [4”] in oaks. In oak, it produces the flake effect common to quarter-sawn lumber.
An olive to greenish-black or brown discoloration of undetermined cause in hardwoods.
MIRROR POLISH FINISH
A finish process involving multiple steps of sanding, mechanical buffing, and polishing.
An assembly made from a single panel in one machining process; includes placement of tape, machining, application of adhesive, folding, gluing, clamping, and cleanup.
The joining of two members at an angle that bisects the angle of junction.
MITER, LOCK JOINT
A miter joint employing a tongue and groove to further strengthen it.
MITER, SHOULDER JOINT
Any type of miter joint that presents a shoulder, such as a lock miter or a splined miter.
A sample made by the manufacturer to demonstrate materials, assembly, workmanship, finish, and/or tolerances proposed for a project. A mock up is not a substitute for samples, Shop drawings or other AWI Standards requirements. Mock ups, if approved, may be allowed to become part of the finished project.
Casework produced from a manufacturer’s standard production line. Their standard details may be adapted for a particular project upon specification.
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY (MOE)
The theoretically recoverable longitudinal deflection value of a material from an applied load.
MODULUS OF RUPTURE (MOR)
The maximum load-carrying capacity of a member under bending load.
The weight of the water in the wood expressed as a percentage of the weight of the oven-dried wood.
The edge of a piece of material machined to any profile other than a square or eased edge.
A decorative strip of material, usually having a curved or profiled face or edge, though it may also be square. Some common mouldings used are listed below:
ASTRAGAL: A moulding attached to one door of a pair of doors covering the gap where the doors meet when closed.
BACK BAND: A moulding used in conjunction with casing or baseboard to create a wider or thicker combination moulding or greater variety of trim options for windows and doors.
BASE BLOCK: The square block terminating a molded baseboard at a doorway, also known as a plinth block. Must be thick enough to accommodate the profile of the baseboard and casing/backband joining adjacent to it.
BASE CAP: A moulding applied to the top edge of a base moulding to add aesthetic affect or increase height.
BASE or BASEBOARD: mouldings used to trim the intersection of a wall or cabinet and the floor.
BASE SHOE: A small moulding combined with a base moulding and set at the front lower edge of the base moulding to meet tightly with the floor.
BEAD MOULDING: A narrow, half-round moulding that is continuous or divided into bead-like segments.
BOLECTION moulding: Profiled moulding which covers the joint between two surfaces that are not meeting on the same plane such as between a thin flat panel and a thicker door stile.
BED MOULDING: A moulding or group of mouldings used immediately beneath a projection.
CASING: Generally, a moulding placed around a door frame or window frame.
CHAIR RAIL: A moulding applied along a wall for protection or as a design element between wall treatments, such as paneling, wallpaper, or paint. Traditionally placed at the horizontal location on the wall, at a height that would be rubbed by a chair back, to protect the wall.
CORNICE: A wood or composite wood moulding detail along the top edge of a piece of a woodwork assembly or a building. May be built up of several mouldings or components to create one large profile.
COVE: moulding with one concave face used to cover the meeting of two planes, such as between a wall and a ceiling.
CROWN: A moulding used to accent the wall and ceiling intersection and/or traditional pediments and casework tops.
FILLET: 1) A thin moulding used to separate or decorate larger mouldings 2) The infill strip that fits between the balusters on a staircase.
HANDRAIL: A moulding used along a stairway, hallway, or corridor designed to be grasped by the hand to provide stability or support. Must meet local building codes.
LATTICE: A thin, flat, rectangular moulding used to build decorative screening that appears woven or to conceal joinery.
OGEE: A moulding with a reverse-curved face that is concave above and convex below.
QUARTER ROUND: A moulding with a convex, quarter-cylindrical shape.
PANEL MOULDING: A decorative moulding used to trim out raised or recessed wall panels.
SCRIBE MOULDING: A thin, narrow moulding, usually with radiused edges, used to cover the space between a wall cabinet or filler and the adjacent wall. The face of the scribe moulding is typically set on top of the face edge of the cabinet box or filler strip.
TRANSITION MOULDING: A moulding that conceals the joint between uneven surfaces.
MORTISE AND TENON
A wood joinery technique where the end of one member is machined to form a rectangular projection (the tenon) designed to fit tightly into a corresponding cavity (the mortise) in the adjoining member. There are multiple variations of this joint.
MORTISE AND TENON, BLIND JOINT
A mortise and tenon joint in which the tenon does not extend through the mortise and is not visible once the joint is completed; also called a “blind tenoned.”
MORTISE AND TENON, SLOTTED JOINT
A mortise and tenon right angle joint in which the tenon is visible on two edges once the joint is completed.
MORTISE AND TENON, STUB JOINT
A short tenon inserted in a plow or groove.
MORTISE AND TENON, THROUGH JOINT
A mortise and tenon joint in which the inserted tenon extends completely through the mortise and the end of the tenon remains visible once the joint is completed.
Broken, wavy patches across the face of the wood that give the impression of an uneven, although smooth, surface caused by a twisted interwoven grain with irregular cross figure, which is the mottle. The effect is due to reflected light on the uneven arrangement of the fibers. Other terms used to describe variations include bee’s wing, fiddle, peacock, plum, ram, block, broken-block or stop mottle.
National Hardwood Lumber Association.
A term used to describe members secured together with nails, including power-driven nails or staples.
Lumber or veneer not sorted for sapwood or heartwood by any percentage.
The natural irregularities found in wood, whether solid or veneered. Their acceptance is a function of each particular grade.
Relates to stairwork. 1) An upright post that supports or receives the handrail at the starting, landing, or top of a staircase. 2) The central vertical support of a spiral staircase.
1) The average sizes (width and thickness) of lumber just out of the sawmill before being processed into usable board stock. Always larger than finished dimensions. 2) A stated dimension which is approximate and subject to allowances for variation.
The inside or outside areas of a building where heating or air conditioning systems are not used for environmental controls.
NON-HOUSED CABINET BACK
Used to describe the condition when a cabinet back is set in a rabbet or is a “plant-on back” style (See also NON-PLOWED BACK).
Used to describe the condition when a cabinet back, or any portion thereof, is set into a rabbet or is a “plant-on back”. Also refers to the section of the back panel that is sandwiched between the anchor strip, the cabinet body, and the edge of the back panel visible.
NON-WOOD BASED PRODUCTS
Any material that is not made of wood, veneer, or paper based materials. Common non-wood based products include: solid surface, bamboo, stone, metals, fabrics, drywall, and masonry.
NON-WOOD TO NON-WOOD
A two-or-more component joint or assembly containing products that are not made of wood or wood-based products.
A rounded convex edge, as on a stair step.
As relates to veneer and lumber natural characteristics, a small number of natural characteristics that appear infrequently in random or intermittent occurrences on a panel or board face.
A paint or pigmented stain finish that hides the natural characteristics and color of the grain of the wood surface.
A finish defect, exhibiting the texture of orange peel, caused by coating that does not flow out smoothly.
ORIENTED STRAND BOARD (OSB)
An engineered wood product formed by mechanically layering strands (flakes) of wood in specific orientations. Final product appears rough and variegated as the individual strips lie unevenly across each other. (Reference a Standard?)
A manufacturing defect which results in exposure of the core of the decorative laminate or otherwise causes flaws or irregularities in the finished product. This defect is the result of the excessive filing/sanding of rough or sharp edges.
The condition of one piece of an assembly, or any portion thereof, laying on top of another. May occur in veneers on a plywood face misplaced so that the edge of one piece overlaps the other and does not make a smooth joint.
To superimpose or laminate a wood veneer or a decorative laminate, such as melamine, polyester, or high pressure decorative laminate, to one or both sides of a given core, such as plywood, particleboard, or MDF.
A finish defect appearing as a fine, dry, grit-like surface, caused when the sprayed finish begins to dry in the air before it hits the surface.
The effect on the appearance of exposed wood surfaces caused by exposure to the atmosphere. This is analogous to browning reactions in freshly cut fruit; for instance, apples. The discoloration may vary by species.
Passage doors manufactured to match each other as they will be adjacent to each other or are next to each other with only a door frame member separating the two doors.
Panels are consistent in thickness, with edges that are at right angles to the face and are either homogeneous or made up of three or more layers.
Establishes the leaf layout in each individual panel.
PARTICLEBOARD (PTBD OR PTB)
A generic term for a panel manufactured from lignocellulosic materials (usually wood), primarily in the form of discrete particles, as distinguished from fibers. The particles are combined with a synthetic resin, or other suitable binder, and bonded together under heat and pressure in a hot press by a process in which the entire interparticle bond is created by the added binder. Other materials may have been added during manufacturing to improve certain properties, including density. Particleboard may be further defined by the method of pressing. When pressure is applied in the direction perpendicular to the faces as in a conventional multi platen hot press, they are defined as flat platen pressed. When the applied pressure is parallel to the faces, they are defined as extruded.
PARTICLEBOARD, FIRE RETARDANT TREATED
Particleboard treated to obtain Class I or Class II flame spread.
A panel or assembly of panels that is securely attached to floor, ceiling, walls, or a supported frame used to divide room spaces.
A repair made by inserting and securely gluing a sound piece of wood to another of the same species in place of a defect that has been removed. The repair and the patch are cut clean and sharp and fit tight with no voids. In veneer repair, “footballs” or “boat” patches are football shaped; “router” patches have parallel sides and rounded ends; “sled” patches are rectangular with feathered ends.
Pockets of disintegrated wood caused by localized decay, often showing a color change that is related to localized injury such as a bird peck. Sometimes considered a decorative effect, such as bird peck in pecan and hickory or “pecky” cypress.
A manually-applied finish system which requires several applications of an oil-based liquid formulated to penetrate the wood. This process involves smoothing between coats with progressively finer grits until the desired build and sheen is achieved.
With reference to these standards, and in contrast to prescriptive based, refers to the lack of dictated or specifically required technical processes in lieu of a concept that allows innovation as long as the required outcomes are achieved.
PHENOL FORMALDEHYDE RESIN
An adhesive typically used for exterior-type construction. Plywood and doors bonded with this adhesive have a high resistance to moisture. The most common types require high temperatures during pressing to aid in the curing process.
The effect on the appearance of exposed wood surfaces caused by exposure to both sun and artificial light sources. Some woods, such as American cherry, walnut, and maple are more susceptible than others to photodegradation. This effect is most obvious in elevations of wall panels or cabinets where a portion of the elevation is exposed daily to sun or strong light while another portion is constantly shaded. Over time, there will be a distinct color difference between the two portions. The rate of change cannot be determined. Solid lumber will changed at a different rate than veneer. This effect cannot be prevented, but can be slowed through selection of UV protective finishing material and/or its impact reduced through stain color selection. This effect cannot be reversed.
Circular or nearly circular holes in an exposed surface.
An accumulation of resin that occurs in separations in the wood or in the wood cells themselves.
A well-defined opening between the annual growth rings that contains pitch.
A well-defined accumulation of pitch in the wood cells in a more-or-less regular streak.
A small, soft, often spongy core occurring in the center of the log.
A lumber processing method which involves sawing a log lengthwise at a tangent to the annual growth rings. The resulting woodgrain appears as U-shaped or straight markings in the board’s face. This is the default requirement for lumber in the Standards unless otherwise specified.
A veneer slicing method most commonly used for hardwood plywood and stock doors. The log is cut in half and one half is placed onto a carriage and moved up and down past a fixed knife to produce the veneers. Veneer is sliced parallel to the pith of the log and approximately tangent to the growth rings to achieve flat-cut veneer. This is the default slicing method for veneers in the standards unless otherwise specified.
1) A board, usually between 38.1 to 88.9mm [1.500” to 3.500”] thick and 152mm [6”] or more wide, laid with its wide dimension horizontal and used as a bearing surface. 2) In veneer matching, the assembly of dissimilar (in color, grain or width) leaves of the same species to resemble an edge-glued panel made from lumber.
PLANT ON BACK
A cabinet back that is applied and fastened to the back edges of a cabinet box. The back is not set in grooves, plows, or rabbets.
Wood/veneer assembly in a finished face containing components that provide a pleasing overall appearance. Grain of the components need not be matched at the joints, but not be widely dissimilar in character and/or figure. Sharp color contrasts at joints of components not permitted. Components are selected so that lighter-than-average colored components are not placed adjacent to darker than average components.
A rectangular groove or slot with three surfaces, cut parallel to the grain of a wood member.
One individual layer of veneer or core material which can be adhered together to form a panel. Grain direction may be altered between layers.
For the purposes of these standards, a panel composed of a crossbanded assembly of layers or plies of veneer that are joined with an adhesive. Except for special constructions, the grain of alternate plies is always approximately at right angles and the thickness and species on either side of the core are identical for balance. An odd number of plies is always used (See also VENEER CORE).
A finish system consisting of a very high solids content plastic coating, requiring skilled application and machine buffing and polishing to create a high-gloss, deep, wet look. Sometimes referred to as a “piano finish”.
A finish system which is hard and wear resistant which is known to be difficult to repair. Most commonly used as a two component system, comprising multifunctional isocyanate or moisture-cured urethane, with a higher solids content than lacquers. Single component (excluding moisture cured) products are usually composed of precatalyzed urethane.
A term used to describe a product that is delivered to the project with finish applied at the plant.
A set of panels in which each panel, usually 1219mm x 2438mm [4’ x 8’] or 1219mm x 3048mm [4’ x 10’], is part of a sequenced set of balanced matched, premanufactured panels to be installed full width with the sequencing maintained. The panel’s balanced match becomes unequal at the start, end, and any other opening or change in plane when trimmed.
One of three aesthetic grades in regard to material and workmanship. Intended for the finest work. Recommended for high visibility areas in which a design professional or owner wants to make a “statement”. The exacting tolerances and stricter guidelines for materials required in premium grade reflect a higher dollar value.
With reference to these standards, and in contrast to performance based, refers to the manner in which requirements are expressed that dictate the technical processes by which the required outcomes are to be achieved.
A treating solution that prevents decay in wood.
As in panel layup, hot, cold, vacuum, or mechanical; refers to the application of pressure until glue sets and becomes rigid.
1) In finishing, refers to the initial layer of a coating onto which subsequent coats will adhere. 2) In regard to some requirements of these Standards, (i.e. back priming), refers to the application of a thin coating of finish material on concealed surfaces intended to slow the transfer of moisture.
A shaped detail cut into the face, edge, or end of moulding or trim. An eased edge is also considered a profile.
A wood adhesive whose primary component is polyvinyl acetate. Commonly referred to as wood glue, white glue, carpenter’s glue, or PVA glue.
Acronym for “polyvinyl chloride,” a synthetic decorative coating or edgebanding.
A polyvinyl chloride edgebanding material. Typically available in seamless rolls and applied using edgebanding machines with hot-melt adhesives.
QUARTER-SAWN (QUARTERED LUMBER)
A lumber processing method which involves cutting a log into quarters then slicing the quarters into lumber with the annual rings running 60 to 90 degrees to the face. Available in limited amounts in certain species. Yields straight grain, narrow boards with “flake” or figure in some species (particularly in red and white oak).
A veneer slicing method that produces veneer with a vertical grain pattern, straight in some woods, varied in others. The veneer is produced by cutting in a radial direction to the pith to the extent that fleck or ray flake is produced, which is noticeably pronounced in oak.
For purposes of these standards, refers to a kerf in mouldings or a reveal in panels that can hide the use of mechanical fasteners.
Rectangular cut on the edge of a part; a “rabbet” has two surfaces forming an “L” shape.
A joinery method in which parts are set into a rabbet cut into the edge of another part.
The cross or horizontal pieces of a stile and rail assembly or face frame. Also refers to the cross pieces of the core assembly of a wood flush door or panel.
In stairwork, the member that follows the pitch of the stair for grasping by the hand.
A traditional door or wall panel with a bevel edge captured in a stile and rail frame.
A face veneer match, achieved through random selection and arrangement of veneer leaves from one or more flitches, producing a deliberate mismatch between the pieces of veneer.
One of the radial structures in a tree that stores nourishment and transports it horizontally through the trunk. In quarter-sawn oak, the rays form a figure called “fleck”.
A substance which, because of the reactions it causes, is used in analysis and synthesis.
A type of wood veneer manufactured from dyed or naturally colored veneers and colored adhesives. The layers of veneer are often pressed into irregularly-shaped blocks and sliced and are often reglued and sliced again across the glue line to create a faux grain with a designed appearance that is repeatable. Susceptible to color migration and photodegradation.
When referring to color and matching, veneers containing all heartwood, ranging in color from light to dark.
Defined as the difference in elevation between the high and the low parts of an area of woodwork or where a form is raised (or, alternatively, lowered) from a flattened background without being disconnected from it.
A patch, shim, or filler material inserted and/or glued into veneer or a panel to achieve a sound surface.
Wood or filler insertions similar in color to adjacent surfaces so as to blend well.
RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE RESIN
An adhesive formulation for woodworking with a high level of water resistance.
moulding used to capture or hold in place another material such as a panel, glass, metal, or other woodwork product.
Continuation in a different direction of a moulding or projection, usually at right angles.
1) The space between door edges and inset frames. 2) The amount of viewable case edge when a door is in the closed position in flush overlay or reveal overlay cabinet construction.
The space between adjacent panels or other architectural features that allows for panel expansion and contraction.
Cabinet construction method in which the door and drawer faces partially cover the body members or face frames of the cabinet with spaces between face surfaces creating decorative reveals.
A straight grain appearance achieved through the process of cutting at a slight angle, approximately 15 degrees to the radial on the half round stay log, or through the use of veneer cut in any fashion that produces a straight grain with minimal ray fleck.
RING, ANNUAL GROWTH
The growth layer added to the girth of a tree each year.
In stairwork, the board at the back of a tread that “rises” to the bottom of the next tread above. In an “open riser” stair, this element is left out, and the gap between the treads is open. Open riser stairs are prohibited by code in many circumstances.
The matching of panel faces within a room.
A veneer slicing method in which the log is placed in a lathe and rotated against a stationary knife. This produces a more or less continuous sheet of veneer, similar to pulling a continuous sheet off a roll of paper towels. Commonly used for preparing veneers for softwood plywood.
Irregularly-shaped areas of generally uneven corrugation on the surface of veneer, differing from the surrounding smooth veneer and occurring as the veneer is cut by the lathe or slicer.
In veneer matching, each panel face is assembled from as many veneer leaves as necessary. Any portion left over from that panel may be used to start the next.
Generally combined in the term “standing and running trim” and refers to random, longer-length trims delivered to the jobsite (i.e., baseboard, chair rail, crown moulding). Running trim is generally installed horizontally. Standing trim is installed vertically.
A finishing defect appearing as dried rivulets of finishing material. Typically the result of excessive material application.
A break or breaks in the grain or between springwood and summerwood caused or aggravated by excessive pressure on the wood by seasoning, manufacturing, or natural processes. Ruptured grain appears as a single or series of distinct separations in the wood, such as when springwood is crushed leaving the summerwood to separate in one or more growth increments.
An abbreviation of “Surfaced on Four Sides” used to describe dimensional components which have two flat and parallel faces, two flat and parallel edges, and square 90-degree corners. Generally, lumber classified as S4S has the finish size specified. (A 2x4 is a common example of S4S lumber).
A finishing defect, appearing as the partial slipping of finish film creating a “curtain” effect.
A manufacturing defect in which the core material is visible through the thin wood veneers due to excessive sanding.
Sanded across, rather than parallel to, the grain of a wood surface.
Sanded by a drum or equivalent sander to remove saw or knife marks.
Sufficiently sanded smooth so that all machining marks, cross sanding, and other imperfections will be concealed once the finish is applied.
The most recent growth rings around the tree and under the bark and cambium; the portion of wood usually lighter in color. “Uniform light” or “white” refers to wood materials being sorted for no dark heartwood; sapwood only.
A single assembly of stiles and rails forming a frame for holding glass, with or without dividing bars, which may be open or glazed.
When the ends of two boards are cut at an angle and glued together to increase the length of the board.
1) To mark and cut an item of woodwork so that it will fit the irregular contours of an uneven wall, floor, or other adjoining surface. 2) A scribe moulding or filler.
An amount of material overhang added to the wall side of a cabinet or countertop backsplash providing material to cut in order to achieve a tight fit to the irregular surface of the wall.
Strip of wood used to fill the space between a base or wall cabinet and an adjacent wall. The face of the scribe filler is typically set flush or set back a maximum of 1.6mm [.063”] from the face edge of the cabinet box.
1) Often the first coat of finish to raw or stained wood or application to concealed areas of factory finished woodwork. 2) The process of applying a moisture-resistant finish to the edges of sink cut outs or other areas which may be exposed to moisture or where off-gassing is a concern.
Compounds that provide a sandable coating and a smooth surface for final topcoat application. Sealers provide system toughness and moisture resistance and contribute to build and clarity.
The process of allowing newly cut wood to release moisture and achieve optimal moisture content without the aid of mechanical drying processes such as kiln drying.
SECURELY ATTACHED (ATTACHED OR BONDED)
The attachment of one part to another by means of approved joinery, adhesive, mechanical fasteners, or by a combination of these means. Parts shall not be considered securely attached if they disassemble during standard usage and stress.
1) A lumber grading term. 2) In architectural specifications, the term “select” is frequently used to describe, clarify, or qualify specific characteristics of the hardwood lumber being specified. For example, select white birch; meaning, “no brown heartwood.”
The application of a material to an edge that matches the face.
1) Surfaces that are generally neither visible nor accessible to the building occupants and/or general public, but can be made visible or accessible by the movement of a component (i.e. opening an opaque cabinet door). 2) Surfaces that are generally neither visible nor accessible to the building occupants and/or general public, but may be accessed if necessary (i.e. the underside of a knee space).
Relating to passage doors, means three or more doors that are adjacent to each other or are next to each other with only a door frame member separating any of the doors.
Finishing term meaning color used to highlight and create a more uniform wood color.
A separation or rupture along the grain of wood in which the greater part occurs between the rings of annual growth. See RUPTURED GRAIN
For the purpose of this standard, this term applies to woodwork such as veneer of lighter than average color joined with the veneer of darker than average color. Two adjacent pieces of woodwork should not be widely dissimilar in grain, figure, and natural character markings.
Finish shine or brightness; luster, patina, and radiance. The gloss level of a cured finish, as traditionally measured with a 60-degree gloss meter. Finish manufacturer’s terms used to describe various sheens are not standardized.
A piece of wood or other solid material attached directly to in-wall blocking just below the bottom edge of a shelf to aid in the shelf’s support.
The deviation from true flat of a shelf when placed under load.
The amount of weight a shelf is designed to carry based on shelf core material, modulus of elasticity (MOE), and surface materials.
A finish coating made from purified lac, a secretion from an insect (Laccifera lacca) that is dissolved in alcohol.
Detailed engineering drawings produced by the manufacturer for the fabrication of the architectural woodwork products. Shop drawings are often submitted to the design professional for review and comment.
Hardwood plywood (usually 3 ply), hardboard, or composition panel, whether flat or contoured, that is used for facings of flush doors, bending laminations, etc.
A trim member similar to base, run on the rake along the wall adjoining a stairway. The skirt board covers the joint between the treads and risers and the wall. Also refers to the similar member below the treads at the open side of a stairway. A housed stringer routed to receive the treads and risers may replace a skirt board. See STRINGER
A support member, usually vertical in placement, between the front and rear members of a non integral toe base or kick assembly.
Visible on observation, but does not interfere with the overall aesthetic appearance with consideration of the applicable grade of the panel.
Used to describe an effect created when, in veneer matching, each leaf from a flitch is laid out in sequence off the bundle with all faces in one direction. This process results in a panel or door which consists of all either loose or tight sides, minimizing barber pole or metamerism.
SMOOTH, TIGHT CUT
Veneer cut to minimize lathe checks.
An inch measurement mathematically converted to its exact, or nearly exact, metric equivalent. Inches are multiplied by 25.4 to determine millimeters. Example: 48” x 25.4 = 1219.2mm, commonly rounded to 1219mm.
1) Coniferous tree species. 2) Lumber or veneer produced from needle and/ or cone-bearing trees.
A composite of solid phenolic resins molded with a homogenous core of organic fiber reinforced phenolic and one or more integrally-cured surfaces of compatible thermoset nonabsorbent resins.
Lumber (as opposed to plywood), that may be more than one piece of the same species, securely glued for width or thickness.
Filled cast polymeric resin panel of homogeneous composition. Solid surface requires polishing but has no applied finish coat and may be capable of being fabricated with inconspicuous seams and restored to its original finish.
In reference to lumber or veneer, the absence of decay, pith, shake, doze, and wane.
The triangular element in a staircase between the stringer and the baseboard. 2) The triangular space between the side of an arch, the horizontal drawn from the level of its apex and the vertical of its springing. (See Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture by John Fleming, Hugh Honour, and Nikolaus Pevsener)
A classification used to identify lumber based on characteristics inherent in the tree.
The ratio of the weight of a certain volume of a substance to the weight of an equal volume of water, the temperature of which is 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit (4 degrees Celsius).
1) The written document provided by the design professional that defines the qualitative requirements for products, materials, and workmanship upon which the construction contract is based. 2) A part of the contract documents which woodworkers and other trades are to bid from, subject to approval from the building owner and modified by addendum or change order, as directed by the design professional.
A thin, narrow strip inserted into matching grooves that have been machined in abutting edges of panels or lumber to ensure a flush alignment and a secure joint.
A concealed oblong shaped spline used to join adjacent members.
A joint formed by the use of a “spline.” Splines customarily run the entire length of the joint and are inserted into matching grooves that have been machined in abutting edges of panels or lumber to ensure a flush alignment and a secure joint.
Separations of wood fiber running parallel to the grain.
Veneer-matching method which achieves an inverted “V” or cathedral in the grain formed by aligning the grain of the edges of two leaves of plain-sliced veneer
1) A natural variation (normally blue or brown) from the typically-anticipated color of the wood specie. 2) A finishing step used to produce the desired undertone color with proper distribution, depth, and clarity of grain. Usually utilizes a water-based or oil-based liquid in which ultrafine pigment particles are suspended. 3) The act of applying wood-coloring materials to the wood.
Wood material assembled to form a stair or to clad stair parts constructed of materials other than wood and that are custom-manufactured to a design for a particular project.
Refers to Standing and Running Trim, indicating vertically-installed mouldings of fixed length delivered to the jobsite. Examples: Door jambs and casings.
Members secured together with staples, including those power-driven. Staples run parallel to the grain on exposed surfaces.
Door core used in flush doors made up of end and edge-glued wood blocks.
STILE AND RAIL CONSTRUCTION
A method of construction consisting of a panel captured within a frame. Its most basic form consists of five members; the panel and the four members that make up the frame. The vertical members of the frame are called stiles while the horizontal members are known as rails. Often used in the making of traditional-styled doors, wainscoting, cabinets, and furniture.
STILES AND VERTICAL EDGES
The upright or vertical pieces of stile and rail assemblies; the vertical members of the core assembly of a wood flush door.
moulding used to “stop” a door or window in its frame.
Sharply contrasting, elongated discolorations in wood or veneer.
An upper support member of base cabinet fabrication, used in lieu of a solid cabinet top to space the end panels.
An inclined structural support for the treads and risers in a flight of stairs.
In stairwork, the portion of a stringer that curves or angles away from the basic run, typically used at the beginning tread.
STRIPE (IN VENEER)
Stripe figure is a ribbon grain:
BROKEN STRIPE: A modification of ribbon stripe. The figure markings taper in and out, due to twisted or interlocked grain, so that the ribbon stripe is not continuous as it runs more or less the full length of the flitch.
PLAIN STRIPE: Alternating darker and lighter stripes running continuously along the length of a piece due to cutting wood with definite growth rings on the quarter.
RAINDROP: When the waves of the fibers occur singly or in groups with considerable intervals between, the figure looks like streaks made by raindrops striking a window pane at a slant.
RIBBON STRIPE: In some wood with interwoven grain, such as mahogany, wide unbroken stripes can be produced by cutting on the quarter.
ROE: Also called “roey” or “rope.” Short, broken ribbon or stripe figure in quarter-sliced or sawn wood. This occurs due to the spiral formation of the fibers or interlocked grain in the growth rings. The irregular growth produces alternate bands of varying shades of color and degrees of luster.
The process of removing an old or existing finish from a surface.
STRUCTURAL COMPOSITE LUMBER (SCL)
A man-made composite that utilizes stranded wood fibers from a variety of tree species, providing an alternative to dimension lumber. The material is engineered for strength and stability. While not really “lumber”, it is marketed as a lumber substitute to be used in place of stave lumber core materials. (Reference a standard here?)
The front piece of a drawer box assembly to which another decorative front is attached.
The separate panel fastened on top of cabinets or furniture over which the decorative countertop is placed.
SURFACE BEARING HEAD
A screw with a homogeneous head that has a flat bottom surface at least two times the diameter of the screw shaft and, when tightened, applies distributed pressure on the surfaces being screwed. Screws combined with washers are not considered surface-bearing heads for the purpose of this standard.
The separation of wood fibers normally occurring across the rings of annual growth, usually as a result of seasoning, and occurring only on one surface of the piece.
A type of figure obtained from that part of a tree where the crotch figure fades into the figure of the normal stem. Sometimes called “angle-wing” or “muscle”.
A rolling top or front in casework enclosing a storage space. It consists of narrow strips of wood fastened to canvas or a similar material.
TELEGRAPH OR TELEGRAPHING
In veneer or laminated work, the condition when defects or extraneous matter in or on the core of a panel becomes visible in the applied top veneer or laminate sheet following pressing and/or finishing.
The projecting tongue-like part of a wood member to be inserted into a slot (mortise) of another member to form a mortise and tenon joint.
THERMALLY FUSED DECORATIVE LAMINATE PANEL (TFL)
A polyester or melamine resin-impregnated paper thermally fused under pressure to a composite core.
Set together so that there is no opening between members.
TIGHT SIDE (OF LEAF)
In knife-cut veneer, the side of the leaf that was farthest from the knife as the veneer was being cut and contains no cutting checks (lathe checks).
A projection on the edge or end of a wood part that is inserted into the groove or plow of a similar size to form a joint.
TONGUE AND GROOVE JOINT
A joint formed by the insertion of the “tongue” of one wood part into the “groove” of the other.
The final protective film of a finish system chosen for its aesthetic and performance qualities.
A roughened area caused by machine work in processing.
A stain or a clear finish that allows the natural characteristics and color of the wood grain to show through the topcoat.
The horizontal surface of a staircase step.
A narrow piece of tread stock applied to the open end of a tread so that the end grain is not exposed. The leading corner of the return is mitered to the leading edge of the tread with a shoulder miter.
1) A distortion in a wood piece caused by freed tension in the grain as the wood was drying. The surface appears to twist as the four corners of any face are no longer in the same plane. 2) In passage doors, any distortion in the door itself and not its relationship to the frame or jamb in which it is hung, measured by placing a straight edge or a taut string on the concave face.
UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN
Commonly used for Type I assemblies; relatively water resistant. Often requires curing by heat, but will cure at room temperature over time.
Narrow and shallow V or U-shaped channels machined on the surface edges of wood to achieve a decorative effect. Often used to make boards with random grain on the face appear as planking.
An oil-based finish used to coat a surface with a hard film.
A thin layer of wood, sliced from a log or flitch. Thickness may vary from, but not exceed, 0.3mm [.012”] to 6.4mm [.252”] thick.
A panel construction, using a core of an odd number of veneer plies, onto which face and back veneers are adhered. See PLYWOOD
VENEER GRAIN OR DIRECTIONAL PATTERN MATCH
Produced by cutting one or more components from the same panel and assembling to maintain grain or pattern alignment.
VENEER, SLICED WOOD
Process in which a log or sawn flitch is held securely in a slicing machine and is thrust downward onto a large knife that shears off the veneer leaves.
Produced by cutting perpendicular to a log’s growth rings, where the member’s face is no more than 45 degrees relative to the rings. This produces a pleasing, straight grain line. Vertical grain is defined as having no less than an average of five growth rings per inch on its exposed face.
Bands of irregular figure running across or diagonally to the grain of the wood caused by impressions left by vines climbing around the tree.
Heavy plastic film, 4 mils (minimum) in thickness and opaque or reverse-printed.
A finish system utilizing catalyzed lacquers with a plastic rather than a nitrocellulose base.
The property of resistance to flow in a fluid or semi fluid.
The spiral decorative element terminating the lower end of a stair rail.
A lower interior wall surface that contrasts with the wall surface above it.
A defect in lumber defined as bark or lack of wood from any cause on the edge or corner, except eased edges.
Any deviation from a true or plane surface, including bow, crook, cup, twist, or any combination thereof. Warp restrictions are based on the average form of warp as it occurs normally and any variation from this average form, such as short kinks, shall be appraised according to its equivalent effect. Pieces containing two or more forms of warp shall be appraised according to the combined effect in determining the amount permissible. See also BOW, CROOK, CUP, TWIST
A thin solution applied as a barrier coat to wood. Used prior to wiping stains for color uniformity.
A sealant rendering the joint or material impervious to water.
A wood treating solution that deposits waterproof or water-resistant solids on the walls of wood fibers and ray cells, thereby retarding their absorption of water.
A woodgrain figure found in veneer. Also known as curly grain. Refers to the appearance of large undulations, sometimes referred to as “finger roll”, when the waves are about the width of a finger.
Open space in a floor in which the stair is set.
WELL MATCHED FOR COLOR AND GRAIN
For the purpose of these standards, means that the members that make up the components of an assembly and components of an adjacent assembly are:
• Similar and nearly uniform in color, and
• Have similar grain, figure, and character. Adjacent members must be of the same grain type whether flat grain (plain sliced), vertical grain (quarter cut), rift grain, or mixed grain.
WHITE (A.K.A. SELECT WHITE OR UNIFORM LIGHT)
When referring to color and matching, veneers containing all sapwood. May range in color from pink to yellow to white.
Glazed frames and sashes for double-hung, casement, awning, sidelights, clerestory, and fixed openings.
Pigmented oils or solvents applied to wood to enhance the wood color.
Products made of wood, veneer, or paper-based materials such as plastic laminate and engineered panels.
A mixture of resin and strands, shreds, or flour of wood which is used to fill openings in wood and, when sanded flush with the surface of the wood member, provide a smooth, durable surface.
WOOD FLUSH DOOR
An assembly consisting of a core, stiles, and rails and/or edgebands, with two or three plies of overlay on each side of the core assembly. All parts are composed of wood, wood derivatives, or high-pressure decorative laminates.
WOOD TO NON-WOOD
A joint made of two or more components or an assembly containing wood or wood-based products installed next to non wood-based components.
WOOD TO WOOD
A joint made of two or more components or an assembly containing wood or wood-based products
A natural defect caused by various types of wood-attacking larvae. Worm tracks often appear as sound discolorations running with or across the grain in straight to wavy streaks. Sometimes referred to as “pith flecks” in certain species of maple, birch, and other hardwoods because of a resemblance to the color of the pith.